and Advocacy
in Pakistan

  • Course Duration 3 hours

  • Course Mode Virtual/self-paced

  • Course Type Moderated/ Assessed
    (for certificate of qualification)

Youth as

  • What is Youth-led research? A tool for advocacy.
  • When is Youth-led research a suitable approach?
  • Co-Benefits of involving Young People in Research.
  • Ensuring Meaningful Involvement.


Duration 10 Minutes


1. Write the correct keyword with the respective statement: Research, Practice, Policy

A way of gathering evidence that can be used to support changes.
How we actually do something.
A plan or course of action, which is taken by governments or other organizations to determine their decisions and actions.

2. How do you define Youth-led Research?

3. Enlist 3 key Benefits of Youth-led Research to Young People?

4. Label the 3 key stages to achieving meaningful youth engagement.

Supporting Youth-led Research Processes

  • Identifying and Empowering Young People as Researchers: A Balancing Act.
  • Key Considerations for Training and Supporting Research Design.
  • Guiding Research Design, Implementation & Dissemination.


Duration 10 Minutes


1. Rearrange and type the following statement headings within the columns of “support” or “management”; within the framework of empowering young people as researchers:

  • Enabling: promoting the idea that children can undertake their own research.
  • Influencing: allowing adult interest/agendas to influence what children research.
  • Sustaining: training children in research process including data collection and analysis methods.
  • Limiting: only teaching children certain skills thereby reducing their ability to make informed choices.
  • Supporting: paving the way for children with gatekeepers.
  • Judging: suggesting that a child’s idea is not worthy enough to research.
  • Helping: helping children with some of the leg work rather than the design work e.g., transcribing interviews, number crunching, report writing frameworks.
  • Controlling: controlling access to participants e.g., in a school not allowing children to observe or interview certain peer groups or staff.
  • Empowering: actively seeking dissemination platforms for child researchers.
  • Hijacking: hijacking the content of children’s research and/or the ownership of the research.



2. Please complete the following definition:

3. Young researchers expect facilitators to be the following:


Maintain confidentiality.


Be judgemental, but unbiased.


Tell them what to do and enforce ideas.


Good at communication.


Open-minded and ready to be challenged.


4. Describe what the 3 key stages of “Support in Research Implementation and Dissemination entail.

Ethics & Safeguarding in Youth-led Research

  • Ethical Considerations.
  • Risk Assessment


Duration 10 Minutes


1. What are the broad measures to ensure data protection when carrying out research?

2. What are the key considerations linked to consent in youth-led research?

3. What is meant by "do no harm"?

4. Complete the Risk Matrix key by rearranging the textboxes according to the template:

Moderate Less serious but likely to occur.
Substantial Relatively serious but less likely to occur.
Low Less serious and less likely to occur.
High Relatively serious and likely to occur.

Online Short Assessment

(100% weightage for certificate of qualification)

As part of the research mentoring team, you are assigned to assess a short research proposal that a team of youth researchers has submitted to undertake within a period of two months.

Read through the following short excerpt from their research proposal and develop a risk assessment matrix to identify issues concerning ethics and project impact, recommending corrective actions and protocols, using the template provided.

Studying the Prevalence and Impact of Bullying on Mental Health and Academic Performance of School Children in Lahore, Pakistan


Bullying is one of the most prevalent forms of “school-based” violence; defined as “intentional repeated overt or covert inappropriate behaviour from another that is intended to intimidate and harm the target”. Victims of bullying in schools that are repeatedly exposed to this violence overtime develop a number of emotional disorders (like higher risk of depression, suicidal ideation, anxiety, sleep disturbances, social isolation and feelings of loneliness), eventually severely impacting the academic performance of the said youth and adolescents as well. Through the current study the research team aims to study the prevalence of bullying in schools of Lahore and understand its causal link with educational performance and mental health issues among school-going children.

Materials and Methods

In order to gather information on the prevalence and impact of bullying the research tea, aims to select ten schools in Lahore. The researchers will choose a representative sample from students in grades 7 to 9, of 150 students per school (age ranging from 12 to 15 years old). The research will be broken down into the following phases:

Phase I: Information on prevalence of bullying in the schools

The research team will carry-out survey of the selected schools:
The students will be asked how many times they have been bullied in the academic session (weekly, monthly, never), and the type of bullying they faced (e.g., I was made fun of, or called names/I was hit or hurt by other students/I was made to do things I didn’t consent to doing, etc.).

Phase II: Academic Performance Tests

The research team will conduct academic performance tests, which will include a 1-hour test; including a reading test, a standardized maths test, and a creative thinking test.

Phase III: Face-to-face interviews assessing the mental health outcomes of bullying

In the last phase the research team will be undertaking face-to-face interview of school children that have been bullied, the researchers will be recording the interviews in audio (to not reveal their faces).

Following is a sample questionnaire the researchers intends to use.

  1. During the past academic session, how often have you felt lonely?
  2. During the past academic session, how often have you been worried so much that you couldn’t sleep at night?
  3. During the past academic session , did you ever seriously consider attempting suicide?
  4. During the past academic session, how many times did you actually attempt suicide?
  5. During the past academic session, how many times were you involved in a physical fight?
  6. During the past academic year how, many days have you missed school because you felt unsafe to show up to school?
  7. During the past academic year how, many times did you miss classes or school without permission?
  8. During the past academic session how, many times were you bullied, and can you tell us how you were bullied?
  9. Why do you think some kids are bullies?
  10. Have you ever bullied others?
  11. What do the adults in your institution respond when they see bullying?
  12. Have you talked to anyone about being bullied? (Parents, teachers, others).
Partially adapted from:

Correlates of bullying victimization among school adolescents in Nepal: Findings from 2015 Global School-Based Student Health Survey Nepal Neupane T, Pandey AR, Bista B, Chalise B (2020) Correlates of bullying victimization among school adolescents in Nepal: Findings from 2015 Global School-Based Student Health Survey Nepal. PLOS ONE 15(8): e0237406.
Question Pro: Bullying Survey for Students Questions + Sample Questionnaire Template:

Answer Template:

Risk Assessment

Identified Risk


Potential Impacts/ Outcomes

Risk Management/ Mitigation Factors

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